Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य*
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolour flag . In the center of the white is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right,and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto "सत्यमेव जयते".
Flag National Emblem
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate"
सत्यमेव जयते 
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
Anthem: Jana Gana Mana
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people

National Song
Vande Mataram
I bow to thee, Mother
Image of globe centered on India, with India highlighted.
Capital New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Mumbai
Official languages
Constitutional languages
Demonym Indian
Government Federal republic,
parliamentary democracy
 -  President Pratibha Patil
 -  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
 -  Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan
Legislature Sansad
 -  Upper House Rajya Sabha
 -  Lower House Lok Sabha
Independence from United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
Area
 -  Total 3,287,240 km2 
1,269,210 sq mi 
 -  Water  9.56
Population
 -  2009 estimate 1,198,003,000 
 -  2001 census 1,028,610,328 
 -  Density 364.4/km2 
943.9/sq mi
GDP  2008 estimate
 -  Total $3.298 trillion " title="List of countries by GDP ">4th)
 -  Per capita $2,780 _per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">130th)
GDP 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.206 trillion " title="List of countries by GDP ">12th)
 -  Per capita $1,017 _per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">143rd)
Gini  36.8 
HDI  0.612  
Currency Indian rupee
Time zone IST
 -  Summer  not observed 
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .in
Calling code 91

India, officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres . It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean.

Home to the Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread non-violent resistance.

India is a republic consisting of 28 states and seven union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy. It has the world's twelfth largest economy at market exchange rates and the fourth largest in purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1991 have transformed it into one of the fastest growing economies; however, it still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy, disease, and malnutrition. A pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

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