Coordinates: 32°N 53°E / 32°N 53°E / 32; 53

Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic
Anthem: National Anthem of Iran²
Capital
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Official languages Persian
Recognised regional languages constitutional recognition of the regional languages such as Arabic, Azeri, Kurdish, Mazandarani, Gilaki, Luri and Baluchi
Demonym Iranian
Government Islamic republic
 -  Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
 -  President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
 -  First Vice President Mohammad Reza Rahimi
 -  Speaker of the Parliement Ali Larijani
Unification
 -  Median Empire 625 BC 
 -  Safavid dynasty 1501 
 -  First constitution 1906 
 -  Islamic Republic declared 1 April 1979 
Area
 -  Total 1,648,195 km2 
636,372 sq mi 
 -  Water  0.7
Population
 -  2009 estimate 74,196,000 
 -  2006 census 70,495,782 
 -  Density 45/km2 
116.6/sq mi
GDP  2008 estimate
 -  Total $805.365 billion 
 -  Per capita $11,052 
GDP 2008 estimate
 -  Total $335.233 billion 
 -  Per capita $4,600 
Gini  38  
HDI  0.777  
Currency Rial
Time zone IRST
 -  Summer  Iran Daylight Time  
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ir
Calling code 98
1 bookrags.com
2 iranchamber.com
3
4 CIA Factbook

Iran ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran is a country in Western Asia. The name Iran has been in use natively since the Sassanid period and came into international use from 1935, before which the country was known internationally as Persia. Both "Persia" and "Iran" are used interchangeably in cultural context; however, Iran is the name used officially in political context. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means "Land of the Aryans".

The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², Iran has a population of over seventy million. It is a country of special geostrategic significance due to its central location in Eurasia. Iran is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. As Iran is a littoral state of the Caspian Sea, which is an inland sea and condominium, Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbors to the north. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq, and on the northwest by Turkey. Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a regional power, and holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC. The first Iranian dynasty formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BC. They were succeeded by three Iranian Empires, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids, which governed Iran for more than 1000 years. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau. Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids. The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics and art became major elements of Muslim civilization and started with the Saffarids and Samanids. Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty—who promoted Twelver Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. "Persia's Constitutional Revolution" established the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy. Iran officially became an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979, following the Iranian Revolution.

Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 Constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader. Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language.

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