Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Flag Presidential Seal
Motto: Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem: İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
Location of Turkey
Capital Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833
Largest city Istanbul
Official languages Turkish
Demonym Turkish
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
 -  President Abdullah Gül
 -  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Mehmet Ali Şahin
 -  President of the Constitutional Court Haşim Kılıç
Succession to the Ottoman Empire² 
 -  Treaty of Lausanne July 24, 1923 
 -  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923 
Area
 -  Total 783,562 km2 
302,535 sq mi 
 -  Water  1.3
Population
 -  2009 estimate 74,816,000 
 -  2008 census 71,517,100 
 -  Density 95.5/km2 
247.3/sq mi
GDP  2008 estimate
 -  Total $915.212 billion " title="List of countries by GDP ">15th)
 -  Per capita $13,138 _per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">61st)
GDP 2008 estimate
 -  Total $729.983 billion " title="List of countries by GDP ">17th)
 -  Per capita $10,479 _per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP per capita">54th)
Gini  38 
HDI  0.806  
Currency Turkish lira5
Time zone EET
 -  Summer  EEST 
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .tr
Calling code +90
2 Treaty of Lausanne .
3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures.
4 Human Development Report 2007/2008, page 230. United Nations Development Programme . Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
5 The Turkish lira replaced the Turkish new lira on January 1, 2009.

Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey ), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits , which are commonly reckoned to delineate the boundary between Europe and Asia, thereby making Turkey a transcontinental country of significant geostrategic importance. Ethnic Turks form the majority of the population, followed by the Kurds. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam. The official language is Turkish.

Turkey is the successor state to the Ottoman Empire. It is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic, whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, WEOG, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the EEC since 1963, and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Eastern world, particularly with the states of the Middle East and Central Asia, through membership in organizations such as the OIC and ECO. Turkey is classified as a developed country by the CIA and as a regional power by political scientists and economists worldwide.

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